Ku is head of the Hawaiian Creator trinity, along with the far nicer Kane and Lono. Goddess … Ku was the god of war and prosperity. He's also cultural adviser at the Bishop Museum. At that time Ku-ka'ili-moku (Ku-the-snatcher-of-islands), Kamehameha's personal god, was established as the principal deity of the realm, a kind of state god. He was said to have a human body that carried miraculous mana (power) from being possessed by the god Ku. In Hawaiian mythology, the great gods Kane (pronounced KAH-nay), Lono, Ku and (possibly) Kanaloa existed before the creation of the world.   Hawaiian mythology tells stories of nature and life. Ku-ka-ili-moku was the guardian of Kamehameha I. https://www.wbur.org/artery/2019/06/25/ku-hawaiian-god-peabody-essex His muscular form towers over the humans from a raised pedestal. "He was called the god Kukailimoku, meaning “snatcher of the islands”. All other gods were limited in their powers to specific areas or functions. Kane is the highest of the four major gods. Kona Sunday Fisherman. For Kramer, it's impossible to know for sure if Kū would’ve been burned — or not — if he had stayed in Hawaii. Kaneaukai: A Legend of Waialua. "Being from Hawaii, and having the value systems of the Pacific, we understand that just because you are the steward of something doesn't mean you own it," Marzan says. G. Thrum 250 . p. 215. Kapo is also one of Pele's seven sisters, and one of the goddesses of the Hula. After a review of records and dialogue with the PEM, the request was withdrawn, according to PEM officials. Manu-o-Kū are known by traditional Hawaiian navigators as one of the best indicators of land. Product information Package Dimensions 8.35 x 2.76 x 2.09 inches Item Weight Translated from Moke Manu by M. K. Nakuina 215 . "Did we save him? “As anyone who sees Kū will understand, he is very powerful,” Monroe says. THE story of Ku-ula, considered by ancient Hawaiians as the deity presiding over and controlling the fish of the sea,--a story still believed by many of them to-day,--is translated and somewhat condensed from an account prepared by a recognized legendary bard of these islands. Staff quietly trickle into a granite-floored atrium in the Peabody Essex Museum’s elegant new wing. “He's a very complex god. Yes.". Marques Hanalei Marzan traveled from Hawaii to lead the ceremony. In Mythology. Compared to Kane, Lono and Ku, not much information is known.Hawaiian traditions describe Kanaloa as a companion of Kāne, describing them as complementary powers. Lono. “The Gift of Ku,” and many other legends of the ‘aumakua, can be found in Hawaiian Legends of the Guardian Spirits, by Caren Loebel-Fried, published by University of Hawai’i Press. Keawe made Kane the ruler of natural phenomena, such as the earth, stones, fresh water. He is the god of procreation, the creator, the … The museum staff and their Hawaiian guests conclude the ceremony with a midday meal. The first story comes from the footnotes of Pele and Hiiaka, A Myth From Hawaii, by Nathaniel B. Emerson. In the moʻolelo, he is mentioned alongside Kāne. Kanaloa is the Hawaiian god of the ocean, associated with long-distance voyaging, and healing. Ku is associated with two food plants, the breadfruit and the coconut, which Handy believed to be late introductions to Hawai‘i (Native Planter), and which would link the god with the migrations of the 12th-13th century, the period when Kuka‘ilimoku is said to have come to Hawaii. The major Hawaiian akua have several godly forms that bear their name. Accompanying the legends are 60 block prints and notes explaining the cultural, historical, and natural significance of each legend. The museum says it will continue to work closely with Native Hawaiians to care for the sculpture. The war god Ku-ka'ili-moku, the special god of the kings of Hawai'i Island, became of great importance during the latter era of Hawai'i's ancient history, especially in the reign of Kamehameha. Hina[3] Some[who?] Then there are many lesser gods (kupua), each associated with certain professions. The many gods of Hawaii and Polynesia were often represented by tikis. In Hawaiian folklore and mythology, there are hundread of gods and goddesses. We have sent our Data Dwarves off to find more nuggets of information. Today, Ku is the prevailing deity in the Heiau of Hawaii, and so women are not allowed on the platforms of … Goddess of the Sea. View the Hawaiian pantheon. Kūmauna, a rain-god of great local fame and power; now represented by a monolithic bowlder about thirty feet high, partly overgrown with ferns and moss, situated in the lower edge of the forest–belt, that lies to the south and Kaʻū of Mauna Loa, deserves more than passing mention. Accompanying the legends are 60 block prints and notes explaining the cultural, historical, and natural significance of … The major gods of East Polynesia, all-powerful in the Hawaiian pantheon, singly and collectively, were Kane, Kanaloa, Ku and Lono. In Hawaiian mythology Kū or Kūkaʻilimoku is one of the four great gods. The Peabody Essex Museum’s new wing opens in September 2019. A list of deities from Hawaiian mythology. Ruler of the ocean. The primary Hawaiian gods represented with tiki images include: Ku - the god of war Lono - the god of agriculture and peace time Kane - the god of creation, sunlight, forests, fresh water Kanaloa - the god of the sea realm. Ku-ka-ili-moku was the guardian of Kamehameha I. Ku-waha-ilo (Ku maggot-mouth) was by tradition a maneater and the god responsible for the introduction of human sacrifice. He wields a fiery mace that burns with the souls of the gods, demons and mortals he has personally slain in combat. “So the idea of bringing Hawaii to Salem with our presence, with our voice, with all of the things that we brought to connect Kū back with his homeland.”. too many section headers dividing up its content, Learn how and when to remove this template message, "`aumakua hulu manu Kuka`ilimoku (feathered god image)", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Kū&oldid=994489377, Artefacts from Africa, Oceania and the Americas in the British Museum, Ethnographic objects in the British Museum, Articles having same image on Wikidata and Wikipedia, All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from July 2014, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Ku-moku-haliʻi (Ku spreading over the land), Ku-pepeiao-loa/-poko (Big and small-eared Ku), Ku-ka-ohia-laka (Ku of the ohia-lehua tree), Ku-ka-ieie (Ku of the wild pandanus vine), Ku-ula or Ku-ula-kai (ku of the abundance of the sea), Ku-hoʻoneʻenuʻu (Ku pulling together the earth), Ku-waha-ilo (Ku of the maggot-dropping mouth), This page was last edited on 15 December 2020, at 23:51. He is said to have guided the ships of the islanders from the mainland to their homes in Hawaii. Kramer says a donor named John T. Prince wrote a letter to the East India Marine Society stating the temple image was procured from a converted Native chief who had planned to destroy it. The White Goddess Pantheons: Hawaiian Gods and Goddesses. Ku-waha-ilo (Ku maggot-mouth) was by tradition a maneater and the god responsible for the introduction of human sacrifice. He's one of five Native American Fellows studying at the museum this summer. According to Hawaiian myth, a creator god named Ku separated Ao from Po. Brother to Lono and Kane and husband of Hina, Ku saved the other Hawaiian deities on numerous occasions when wars broke out. It is associated with the Hawaiian religion. She's the museum's curator of Native American and Oceanic Art and Culture. Kanaloa is known as Kāne’s traveling partner. Like other U.S. cultural institutions that receive federal funding, the Peabody Essex Museum complies with the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act — or NAGRPA — a legal mechanism enacted in 1990 to help return human remains and sacred objects to indigenous communities. On Oahu between Kualoa and Kaneohe lies the first land planned by the gods. “So he is being attended to by a number of practitioners of Native Hawaiian culture that we brought together to do this.”. Then there are many lesser gods (kupua), each associated with certain professions. Ao represented the male force in the universe and was associated with the sky, the day, and light. KU Hawaiian War God. Kū lived with his wife Hina and their son `Ai`ai in Hāna on the island of Maui.… The leader of what are known as the four deities. It is considered a variant of a more general Polynesian mythology, developing its own unique character for several centuries before about 1800. Kū is the man. Kū is the god of war in Hawaiian mythology and is represented by images of a feathered god. Translated from Moke Manu by M. K. Nakuina 215 . One term for this concept, kino lau, translates literally as “many bodies,” the myriad forms of the 400,000 gods that make up the Hawaiian pantheon. GodNote: Sorry this Ku article is a bit short. These small seabirds are found across the tropical oceans of the world, and on the remote Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. In addition to the gods and goddesses, there are family gods or guardians (aumakua). His name is not used to describe other forms. Kanaloa is known as Kāne’s traveling partner. These gods vary from terrifying, like Ku the great god of war and sorcery who demand human sacifices to appease him to the non-threathening like Nuakea the beneficient goddess of milk and lactation. Ku is worshipped under many names, including Ku-ka-ili-moku, the "Seizer of Land" (a feather-god, the guardian of Kamehameha). I don't know," she says. His thick legs look ready to pounce. =Owing to the multiplicity inherent in Hawaiian concepts of deity, Kū may be invoked under many names such as.., which reference subordinate manifestations of the god. Thos. The four main gods (akua) are Ku, Kane, Lono and Kanaloa. Kū was taken from Hawaii as waves of Christian missionaries arrived to convert the indigenous population in the 1820s, '30s and '40s, Marzan says. Aiai, Son of Ku-ula. KU – The Hawaiian god of war. XXII. Ku-ula, the Fish God of Hawaii. “Aloha everyone. God of Fertility. For example, one form of the akua Kū is Kūkāʻilimoku (Kū, the island snatcher); a form of Kāne is Kānehoalani (the sun). Here, he says, Kū can be an ambassador for Hawaiian people. Like many indigenous peoples, the ancient Hawaiians felt a deep connection to the aina (land), and used stories of their gods and goddesses to explain everything from lava flows to the creation of the Hawaiian Islands. Some linguists believe the manu-o-K ū name was derived from “ohu”, the Hawaiian word for fog, mist or cloud. “So that's what it felt like.”. Ku really caught my attention because he is the Hawaiian god of war, but yet he isn't a huge jerk about it, unlike Ares from the Greek pantheon. Ku‘ula is known by native Hawaiians as the god and deity that controls the fish of the sea. Hawaiian Tiki God Ku - Ku is the god of war, virility, masculinity, and certain types of healing, crafts and other cultural practices. Hawaiian Tiki God Ku - Ku is the god of war, virility, masculinity, and certain types of healing, crafts and other cultural practices. Kanaloa is the Hawaiian god of the ocean, associated with long-distance voyaging, and healing. Translated from Moke Manu by M. K. Nakuina 230 . God. But Marzan says countless objects survived. The ancient Hawaiians kept their gods close using many creative forms of communication. Ku-kaili-moku was the most powerful sorcery god of Hawaii until the rise of the famous sorcery god of Molokai, Ka-lei-pahoa, whose story will be told later. Goddess. Kū is worshiped under many names, including Kū-ka-ili-moku (also written Kūkaʻilimoku), the "Snatcher of Land". The ancient Hawaiians kept their gods close using many creative forms of communication. The deity was favored by King Kamehameha I, who unified the Hawaiian islands by 1812. Kū-ka-ili-moku was the guardian of Kamehameha I who created statues of him at Holualoa Bay and his residence at Kamakahonu. “The Gift of Ku,” and many other legends of the ‘aumakua, can be found in Hawaiian Legends of the Guardian Spirits, by Caren Loebel-Fried, published by University of Hawai’i Press. It is associated with the Hawaiian religion. “He's fierce.”. Kaneaukai: A Legend of Waialua. Ku – Ancient Tiki God of War Ku was the husband of the goddess Hina, suggesting a complementary dualism as the word ku in the Hawaiian language means "standing up" while one meaning of 'hina' is "fallen down.". Manu-o-Kū means “Bird of Kū” in Hawaiian. Ku, like his brothers Kane and Lono, was a child of the sky god Rangi and the Earth goddess Papa. Ku was the god of war and prosperity. He was the husband of the goddess Hina (Beckwith 1970:12), suggesting a complementary dualism as the word ku in the Hawaiian language means "standing up" while one meaning of … Ku, who was known as the ... around the islands of Hawaii. Please help improve the article by merging similar sections and removing unneeded subheaders. This ceremony is sacred for the practitioners, so I’m asked to shut off my recorder. In contrast to Lono being the deity of cultivated foods, Kane was the god of wild foods and plants like trees, etc. Fishing has always been an important part of Hawaiian culture as is a deep respect for the bounty of the natural world that surrounds them in the sea. Kapua: The divine tricksters or mischief-makers of Hawaii. They mill about, hushed and excited, waiting to see an imposing, larger-than-life carving known as Kūka‘ilimoku, or Kū for short. Correction: An earlier version of this story misstated the year when the effigy was installed in the museum. Ku required his own temples where the ancient Hawaiian priest would make sacrifices to Ku. God. Manu-o-Kū are known by traditional Hawaiian navigators as one of the best indicators of land. We regret the error. But to avoid a two gods with the same title, Ku's official title could be, "The God of Prosperity." In the beginning, according to one tradition, nothing existed except a chaotic blackness called the “Po” (“night”). “If you follow the lines of his headdress [braided hair] from the tip of his head all the way down — and it hangs almost as low as his hands — that's all one piece of wood,” she marvels. The Hawaiian monarchy denounced native religious practices and iconography was rejected and destroyed. “How Kū was taken out of the box, brought to the place, all of the ceremony,” he recalls. Complementary power and close companion of Kane. Kanaloa is said to be tall with a fair-skinned complexion. Companion gods who cover different, sometimes opposite aspects of life make for a more complete world. 5. Ki'i: Hawaiian creator god or first created man. The 4 Major Gods of Hawaii. Kanaloa: God of the underworld and a teacher of magic. Family trees coming soon! Outgoing PEM director and CEO Dan Monroe is clearly excited for what's about to unfold. "You have a responsibility to care for that on behalf of the people and community that it comes from. My name is Mehana,” she says warmly. According to Hawaiian mythology, one of Kū’s many manifestations is God of War. The primary Hawaiian gods represented with tiki images include: Ku - the god of war Lono - the god of agriculture and peace time Kane - the god of creation, sunlight, forests, fresh water Kanaloa - the god of the sea realm. Marzan says some Native Hawaiians strongly believe artifacts like Kū should be returned to Hawaii, but he's grateful this piece of his culture's history is being preserved at the Peabody Essex Museum. The girthy, grimacing, 6-and-a-half-foot-tall wooden sculpture has been in storage during construction. Some linguists believe the manu-o-K ū name was derived from “ohu”, the Hawaiian word for fog, mist or cloud. Use our Godbrowser™ to explore the Gods of Hawaiian Mythology. Ku wields a fiery mace that burns with the souls of the gods, demons and mortals he has personally slain in combat. Kū is revered as a living god by many Native Hawaiians. XXIV. In the plant world, he was believed to embody the forms of ʻIeʻIe (Freycinetia arborea) vine, ʻŌhiʻa Lehua (metrosideros polymorpha)flower, ʻulu (breadfruit), niu (coconut), and noni (Morinda citrifolia) fruit. The war god Ku-ka'ili-moku, the special god of the kings of Hawai'i Island, became of great importance during the latter era of Hawai'i's ancient history, especially in the reign of Kamehameha. On the eastern flank of Mololani (a crater hill on Mokapu), at a place where fine red earth is mixed with bluish and blackish soil, the first man is formed by the three gods Kane, Ku, Lono. G. Thrum 250 . He was the husband of the goddess Hina (Beckwith 1970:12), suggesting a complementary dualism as the word ku in the Hawaiian language means "standing up" while one meaning of … “I hope the relationship grows and that it engenders more types of events with other cultural objects.". Nuakea. Werner's field of study is anthropology and one of his goals is to help elevate Hawaiian historical memory. Human sacrifices were made to Ku, unlike any other god. As an akua, Kanaloa is a distinct individual with specific characteristics. Compared to Kane, Lono and Ku, not much information is known.Hawaiian traditions describe Kanaloa as a companion of Kāne, describing them as complementary powers. The sun at its rising is referred to Ku, at its setting to Hina; hence the morning belongs to Ku, the afternoon to Hina. It was made for and erected by King Kamehameha I, unifier of the Hawaiian Islands at the end of the eighteenth and the beginning of the nineteenth century. He is also known as the husband of the goddess Hina. It’s always a little disturbing when the military are in charge of things. Feathered god images or ʻaumakua hulu manu are considered to represent Kū. He is known as Akua, (god) of war, politics, farming and fishing. These 9 Fascinating Stories Of Hawaiian Mythology Will Leave You Shaking Your Head In Awe. [1] Kūkaʻilimoku rituals included human sacrifice, which was not part of the worship of other gods. Manu-o-Kū means “Bird of Kū” in Hawaiian. In addition to the gods and goddesses, there are family gods or guardians (aumakua). XXIII. When he reected her, she turned him into an ugly, twisted tree. Kū, Kāne, and Lono caused light to shine in upon the world. “See the sky,” Marzan hopes, “maybe not feel the rain, but you know he can definitely see the rain falling, see the wind blowing through the trees.”. ", “What we're doing is honoring Native Hawaiians’ living relationships that they have with Kū,” Karen Kramer told me after the ceremony. Ku – Ancient Tiki God of War Ku was the husband of the goddess Hina, suggesting a complementary dualism as the word ku in the Hawaiian language means "standing up" while one meaning of 'hina' is "fallen down.". XXIII. These very rare statues (no others are known extant) were later acquired by the Bishop Museum, the Peabody Essex Museum in Salem, Massachusetts and the British Museum in London. He calls the museum a steward. Kū is the god of war in Hawaiian mythology and is represented by images of a feathered god. He is known as the god of war. Po, the feminine force, was linked with the earth, darkness, and night. In Hawaiian mythology, Ohia and Lehua were young lovers, but one day, Pele met Ohia and decided that she wanted him for herself. Flaring nostrils, a gaping mouth and curled-up, jutting chin animate Kū's large head. [7][8] One feathered god image in the Bishop Museum is thought to be Kamehameha I's own image of his god. They are uncreated gods who have existed from eternity. “I will be ushering us up the stairs. have taken this to suggest a complementary dualism, as the word kū in the Hawaiian language means "to stand" while one meaning of hina is "to fall". . Human sacrifices were made to Ku, unlike any other god. XXI KU-ULA, THE FISH GOD OF HAWAII TRANSLATED FROM MOKE MANU BY M. K. NAKUINA. Kane: Father of living creatures. The cultural practitioner walks toward us with a greeting, and some news. Goddess of the Moon. The complementary pairing of Kāne and Kanaloa reflects a pattern that is common in Hawaiian culture and worldview. Kū entered the museum's collection in the 1840s.   Hawaiian mythology tells stories of nature and life. Also known as Ku-Ka-Pua, Ku-Kua-Akahi. [5], Kūkaʻilimoku was the guardian of Kamehameha I, who unified the Hawaiian archipelago under one ruler and established the Hawaiian kingdom. The four main gods (akua) are Ku, Kane, Lono and Kanaloa. Read 11 reviews from the world's largest community for readers. Andrea Shea Twitter Senior Arts ReporterAndrea Shea is WBUR's arts reporter. Namaka. The other three are Kanaloa, Kāne, and Lono. In Mythology. Part II of the Legend of Ku-ula, the Fish God of Hawaii. He is depicted with a wide grimacing mouth and bent legs. "Would they have still been around for us to see and experience today?”. In the new wing, Kramer says, thousands of visitors will be exposed to Kū's history and artistry. Here on Oahu, they thrive and raise their young only on southern O‘ahu. Ku has practically saved the world twice by himself and came out unscathed. Prayer is addressed to Ku toward the east, to Hina toward the west. Use our Godbrowser™ to explore the Gods of Hawaiian Mythology. “This” is a private ceremony to honor Kū and bless his new location. Ku (God of War) Ku is the god of war, and his weapon is a flaming mace containing the souls of those he has slain. Ku: God of war. “Whenever I travel to different places around the world I always think about what would happen if they actually stayed in Hawaii," he says. When creating humans with his brothers, Ku … He is depicted with a wide grimacing mouth and bent legs. Kane draws a likeness of the gods with head, body, hands, and legs like themselves. In ancient chants and rituals, three sons: Ku, Lono, and Kanaloa, along with Kane are the four major Hawaiian gods. Kanaloa, however, is unique. Ferociously ugly War God. In Hawaiian, manu means bird and Kū refers to one of the four great Hawaiian gods. He had monuments erected to the deity at the Hōlualoa Bay royal complex as well as his residence at Kamakahonu, both in the district of Kona, Hawaiʻi. A ship's carpenter was ordered to remove Kū from his tall pole. Other chants were intended to awaken Kū, to mark the beginning of a new cycle, to create balance and to ask for inspiration and growth for all the work being done at the museum. Kū (or Kūka'ilimoku) is the Hawaiian god of war. Ku is worshipped under many names, including Ku-ka-ili-moku, the "Seizer of Land" (a feather-god, the guardian of Kamehameha). The counterparts of Rangi and Papa in Hawaiian mythology were Ao and Po. The many gods of Hawaii and Polynesia were often represented by tikis. That is, he is the akua for the kuleana and work of males. Translated from Moke Manu by M. K. Nakuina 230 . Pakaʻa is the god of the wind. Ku is associated with two food plants, the breadfruit and the coconut, which Handy believed to be late introductions to Hawai‘i (Native Planter), and which would link the god with the migrations of the 12th-13th century, the period when Kuka‘ilimoku is said to have come to Hawaii. Three colossal statues of the god Kū were reunited for the first time in almost 200 years at the Bishop Museum in Honolulu in 2010. Introduction to Hawaiian Mythology. Ku (Ku-ka-ili-moku) ("Snatcher of the Land") is a God of Strength, War and Healing and is one of the four great gods along with Kanaloa, Kane, and Lono. When Ku became as the primary god of Hawaii (somewhere between 750, and 1250 A.D.), the balanced system where men and women were honored equally was overthrown. Before sitting down, the visiting delegation’s Marques Marzan smiles and says he's thankful to see Kū standing proudly in a prime window spot where he can look outside and see the world again. In Hawaiian mythology, Kū or Kūkaʻilimoku is one of the four great gods. As we wait for the ceremony, a Native Hawaiian woman with braided hair, a wreath of dark seashells and bare feet sits quietly at the bottom of a stairway. So are clouds, rain, the movement of lava, the currents of ocean and air. One person who experienced Kū's power up close during the ceremony is Native Hawaiian Kamuela Werner. XXIV. 5. “And it is an unbelievable work of art, and you can feel power emanating from him.”. Many were collected by captains of trading ships passing through the Pacific islands. View the Hawaiian pantheon. According to the museum, a NAGPRA right of possession claim for Kū was submitted by Hui Malama I Na Kupuna 'Oh Hawai'i Nei (Group Caring for the Ancestors of Hawai'i) in the '90s. In Hawaiian mythology Ku is one of the four great gods along with the ancient tiki gods, Kanaloa, Kane, and Lono. =Owing to the multiplicity inherent in Hawaiian concepts of deity, Kū may be invoked under many names such as.., which reference subordinate manifestations of the god. The role of Kū is to protect and provide for ʻohana and the community. Hina's counterpart in New Zealand for example, is Hina, associated with the moon, rather than Hinga, "fallen down". This power allowed him to direct, control and influence all of the … Soon the delegation’s series of chants rise and fall in the cavernous space to welcome Kū to his new home. KU – The Hawaiian god of war. However it is still unclear whether all feathered god images represent Kū.[9]. Many make regular offerings to Kū`ula the God of Fisherman. With a face like that he certainly looks the part. "But have we taken care of him since we've had him? [4] This analysis is not supported by evidence from other Polynesian languages which distinguish the original "ng" and "n". Today, Ku is the prevailing deity in the Heiau of Hawaii, and so women are not allowed on the platforms of … “We did a series of chants, first beginning with three chants that honored Hawaii,” he explains. Ku, like his brothers Kane and Lono, was a child of the sky god Rangi and the Earth goddess Papa. Keawe made Kane the ruler of natural phenomena, such as the earth, stones, fresh water. This large figure probably represents Ku-ka’ili-moko, one of the manifestations of Ku, the Hawaiian god of war. Family trees coming soon! Goddess. PEM director Dan Monroe was instrumental in NAGRPA's creation. Kane. Manu O Kū is the Hawaiian name for the White or Fairy Tern. Kanaloa is said to be tall with a fair-skinned complexion. Kupua: Generic term for the demigods of Hawaii, as opposed to the Akua,the gods proper. Kū`ula: The Hawaiian God of Fishermen 15 09 2011. Consult Godchecker’s complete alphabetical list of Hawaiian god and goddess names. Ancient Hawaiians kept their gods close using many creative forms of communication figure probably Ku-ka! Were Ao and Po wooden sculpture has been in storage during construction Hawaii, by Nathaniel B. Emerson of kind... Ruler of natural phenomena, such as the earth, stones, fresh water carpenter was ordered to remove from. Three chants that honored Hawaii, by Nathaniel B. Emerson, fresh water ) from possessed... 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