These were like the shelter shown in Fig. The pieces should he securely tied or taped together. In contrast, tests with average citizens have indicated that if they have instructions for making and using Directional Fans and if there are a few hours of warning time before the attack, then the majority will be able to ventilate all of their expedient shelters, except some of the largest. Apparently the men in Moscow and Washington who decide what shelter-building and shelter-ventilating instructions their fellow citizens receive - especially instructions for building and improving expedient shelters-do not understand the ventilation requirements for maintaining endurable temperature/humidity conditions in crowded shelters. All 20 of these shelters have dangerously inadequate natural ventilation, and none of them have air pumps. Numerous tests have shown that the hazards from fallout particles carried into shelters by unfiltered ventilating air are minor compared to the dangers from inadequate ventilation. When possible, enclosures are your best bet. They come with a Staircase that has Double Handrails. FEMA's predecessors, the Office of Civil Defense and the Defense Civil Preparedness Agency, were unable to get the millions of dollars necessary to buy factory-made KAPs and other manual air pumps to ventilate officially designated fallout shelters, and FEMA has avoided shelter ventilating controversies. "Effective temperature" combines the effects of the temperature of the air, its relative humidity, and its movement. Russian earth-covered expedient fallout shelters are based on military dugouts designed for brief occupancy during a conventional attack. Field tests have proved that average Americans can build the expedient air pump described in Appendix B in a few hours, with inexpensive materials found in most households. To date, although Directional Fanning instructions have been reproduced in three private civil defense publications, and some 600 copies of a metric version of the instructions were distributed to British civil defense professionals at the 1984 Annual Study of Civil Defense and Emergency Planning Officers, FEMA has not even evaluated Directional Fanning. ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. ° Headaches, collapse, or death due to carbon monoxide from open fires or gasoline lanterns that release gases into the shelter air. If high-protection-factor shelters or most other shelters that lack adequate forced ventilation were fully occupied for several days in warm or hot weather, they would become so hot and humid that the occupants would collapse from the heat if they were to remain inside. Preferably stand opposite and facing the open door, which should be secured open and perpendicular to its doorway. To make a durable 2-handled fan, first make its frame out of 2 sticks each 14 inches long and 2 sticks each 22 inches long. A.6: Aboveground, Crib-Walled Shelter, App. In warm weather, chimney-type natural ventilation usually is inadequate for most high-protection factor shelters that are fully occupied for days. Consequently, how best to use available resources must be the primary consideration when planning for protection against the worst dangers of a nuclear attack; relatively minor hazards may have to be accepted. ° Headaches from the carbon monoxide produced by smoking. STOPPING OR RESTRICTING SHELTER VENTILATION. FEMA recommends that you make your storm shelter a minimum of 7 square feet per person for tornadoes. All Concrete Storm Shelters have a 10 Year Warranty against leaks and corrosion. After 1000 hours of operation during which it pumped air through a room at a rate of 4000 cubic feet per minute (4000 cfm), there were only minor tears in the plastic flaps. See Fig. The best way to protect your family and possessions is with a secure storm shelter. To increase the flow of outdoor air through a tunnel-shelter, several fanners equally spaced along its length should each fan in the direction of the natural air flow. How Do You Breathe Inside A Nuclear Bomb Shelter? However, shelter-building experiments have shown that the physically stronger individuals, usually the more experienced builders, should do more of the hard, manual work when shelters are built, and that those less experienced at building should do the lighter work including making shelter ventilating pumps. A: Instructions for Six Expedient Fallout Shelters, App. Then, if a need arises to stop or restrict ventilation, the shelter can be closed for longer than could be done safely otherwise. I am qualified for a FEMA storm shelter rebate. Enough air usually will be blown through an aboveground shelter if sufficiently large openings are provided on opposite sides and if there is any breeze. All the debri that would fall on top of the storm shelter will instead fall on top of the car and fall off the sides. There are Vents on Top of the Shelter. C. ADDITIONAL ADVANTAGES OF DIRECTIONAL FANS. While watching these top Chinese civil defense professionals make and test KAPs and Directional Fans, I kept thinking: 'This is the way Thomas Edison and Henry Ford would have evaluated simple devices of possible great importance to millions.". Two men thus fanning vigorously produced a net air flow of 5,500 cubic feet per minute through an empty school corridor that is 8 feet wide, has a 9- foot ceiling, and is 194 feet long. VENTILATION/COOLING OF PERMANENT SHELTERS. The walls, ceiling, and door of the shelter must withstand wind pressure and resist penetration by wind-borne objects and falling debris. Because the Soviets have deployed thousands of ICBMs with warheads of "only" 100 to 550 kilotons, Americans face increased dangers from very radioactive particles scavenged by rain-outs or snow-outs. Simple means for preventing skin diseases and infections-means proved very effective by jungle natives and by our best trained jungle infantrymen in World War II - are described in the Prevention of Skin Diseases section of Chapter 12. The Car-Over-Trench Shelter pictured in Fig. The guidance contained in FEMA P-320, FEMA P-361 or ICC 500 can all be used to address these extreme loads. Five pairs of Bedsheet Fanners, spaced about 75 feet apart down a corridor, after fanning for several minutes produced a measured air flow of approximately 100,000 cubic feet per minute through this part of this corridor! A blade of 4-inch plywood is too heavy. By fanning vigorously, 500 to 600 cubic feet per minute have been forced through a small covered-trench shelter. (Unlike the punkah, however, this air pump can force air to move in a desired direction and is a true pump.) You need to be out of the way when lightning strikes and you also need to be out of the rain as much as possible. With only a 6-inch-diameter air-exhaust opening, not nearly enough air can flow naturally in warm weather through this crowded shelter's room (only about 39 inches wide by 34 inches high). Round sticks were smoothed. The licensed design professional who signs the certification attests that the design or product will meet the requirements specified on the certification. During 24 years of civil defense research, my colleagues and 1 have improved upon the cooling methods of jungle people, primarily by the invention and thorough field-testing of the homemade KAP described in Appendix B, and of the Directional Fans covered by the instructions at the end of this chapter. To prevent possible blistering of hands, wrap cloth around the fan handles, or wear gloves. The prescriptive plans for safe rooms provided in FEMA P-320 are not intended to be a substitute for a licensed design professional. The father of the Utah family described earlier had made this simple pump at home, using only materials and tools found in many homes as described in Appendix B. To increase the flow of air through a shelter, while fanning the occupants: Have two or more occupants sitting inside the shelter each use a fan of the size described above to fan the air so as to increase its velocity in the direction in which air already is flowing through the shelter. Subsequently, they were improved for fallout protection but were made much less habitable by Soviet civil defense specialists. A 2-Handled Directional Fan of the size illustrated (14 in. Russian small expedient shelters are even more dangerously under-ventilated than are most of their American counterparts, and can serve to illustrate similar ventilation deficiencies of American shelters. The stabilized clouds of such explosions would be mostly in the troposphere, and some of even the tiniest particles - those small enough to be breathed into one's lungs - would be promptly scavenged and deposited in scattered "hot spots." To adequately ventilate and cool people crowded into a long tunnel in hot weather, a pair of Bedsheet Fanners should be positioned about every 100 feet along its length. However, this method requires organization and discipline. 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